The Portuguese, French and Dutch all had a foothold in India at some time but the British had the largest presence, eventually ruling the sub-continent from 1858 – 1947. In the early colonial years, silverware was probably not marked and no records of silversmiths exist. Records of silversmiths and objects carrying their marks can be identified and traced from around 1790. Calcutta and Madras were the principal manufacturing centres for colonial silver. The colonial period ended with the commencement of British rule (the Raj period) in 1858. Indian silver made after 1858 is listed under other sections and categorized by region of origin. The principal production centres:- Kutch, Madras, Lucknow and Kashmir have their own categories and the Indian Regional Silver category contains pieces from other regions.