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{"id":5592462033046,"title":"Antique Indian Silver Tea Service, F P Bhumgara \u0026 Co, Madras, India, Late 19th Century","handle":"antique-indian-silver-tea-service-f-p-bhumgara-and-co-madras-india-late-19th-century","description":"\u003cp\u003eThis extremely fine antique Indian silver tea service was made in Madras in the late 19\u003csup\u003eth\u003c\/sup\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ecentury.  The set comprises three pieces, a teapot, cream jug and sugar bowl.  The vessels are of globular shape with each vessel supported by a plain silver stepped and coiled pedestal foot.  This design is echoed in the corresponding plain silver coiled edge to the rims of the openings above. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe finial of the tea pot takes the form of an elephant, representing the deity Ganesh. The pot has a spectacular coiled and arched serpent handle containing insulators, which serves as a rest and support for the hinged cover, ensuring that the hinge is not overstrained once the lid is opened. The handle to the cream jug and two handles to the sugar bowl are of similar style.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe vessels have been ornamented using repousse and chased techniques with well known scenes from the stories of the Hindu pantheon. There are two scenes on each piece which have been inspired by the paintings of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma, (please see below for further information) whose paintings and prints would have been widely admired and well known at the time this set was made.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOnly a master silversmith would have been capable of the standard of work required to accurately depict human figures, particularly to differentiate and create realistic faces with human expressions. Above each scene is a succession of architecturally inspired archways, alternating with a floral and foliate sprig. The scene to the tea pot which shows Shiva seated on his throne, with an umbrella above him, and surrounded by his devotees is an absolute masterpiece. With nine figures in total, all the figures are realistically posed, active and expressive with the details of the fabric of their robes, jewellery and the folds and drape of the cloth, finely rendered. The patterned fabric to Shiva’s umbrella is particularly noteworthy as is the finely detailed carving on his throne. The way in which the shape of the bolster supporting his back has distorted with the pressure is also very realistic. The serpent handle is just magnificent with every scale on the snake’s skin precisely rendered as are the striations and detailing of the under belly.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe background to all the scenes has been finely incised, with the natural elements such as mountains and trees portrayed in a very accomplished, if stylised, manner.  To the opposite side of the teapot, Shiva is shown riding a lion through the countryside, whilst holding Ganesh on his knee and bearing a lotus in his left hand. There is a mountainous backdrop in the distance, probably representing the Himalayas. A male figure follows Shiva and two female figures stand before him, one has her arms raised in welcome.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe cream jug depicts Shiva resting on Shisha, with a female crouching by his side and holding the lower part of his leg.  Once again, this scene is set against a mountainous backdrop.  To the opposite side, Shiva is depicted walking in the forest amongst the hills.  A female figure is offering him a drink of water from her waterpot.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe scenes on the sugar bowl are believed to illustrate Krishna with the Gopis, female cowherds, and their cows, with the second scene showing Lakshmi in the forest with two plaintiffs.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe tea pot has been inscribed to the underside of the base with ‘F.P.B. MADRAS’.  This is the mark of the Parsee merchant, Framgee Pestonjee Bhumgara, who traded from premises at 5 Mount Road, Madras as F.P. Bhumgara \u0026amp; Co. Framgee started his business in the Indian seaport of Surat in 1841, employing six workmen making sandalwood boxes and toys.  In 1865 he obtained premises in Bombay.  By the 1880s the firm had expanded, with other branches in Madras, Calcutta, Amritsar and Kashmir; then Bhumgara looked to expand internationally.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs reported by The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith on 2nd September 1889, ‘\u003cem\u003eSome time ago he (Framgee) visited England for the purpose of familiarising himself with the requirements of Western taste, and on that occasion he succeeded in obtaining an introduction to the Queen, who received him at Windsor, and expressed herself greatly pleased with the work, and appointed Mr. Framjee a jeweller to the court.\u003c\/em\u003e’With a royal appointment safely in his pocket, Bhumgara opened offices in London in the late l880’s, trading in Swami silverware, jewellery and other oriental wares.  He traded from premises at 135 London Wall, entering his silver mark with the London Assay Office on the 29th September 1891.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eF.P. Bhumgara \u0026amp; Co exhibited at the 1893 Chicago Exposition in the USA and opened their New York branch at 524 Broadway, the following year.  They also exhibited at The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, in 1904.  Bhumgara advertised a wide range of Eastern imports including various types of new and antique goods including furniture, textiles, metalwork, weapons and embroidered summer draperies.  They described themselves as ‘manufacturers and importers’. At this time, the novelty and exotic appeal of foreign goods in the market place was a source of great pleasure to the consumer who was often starved of any prospect of foreign travel or exploration of other cultures. Cullinane and Ryan explain that “foreignness itself was a large part of the appeal of imports”.  In this climate, traders like Bhumgara saw a great opportunity for profit.\u003cbr\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMadras, now named Chennai, is one of India’s principal cities today.  It was founded in 1644 as a strategic trading post of the British East India Company.  As the city grew, it became a centre for silversmiths and other metalworkers. The arts and crafts of Madras were steeped in the Hindu tradition, influenced by the region’s rich legacy of temple architecture and Hindu bronze sculpture. During the nineteenth century, silver produced in Madras became known to the British as “Swami silver” because it depicted an abundance of decorative deities and scenes of religious festivals drawn from the iconography found in the surrounding temples.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFrom 1884 onwards, the work of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma (1848 – 1906) became the principal source of inspiration for the silversmiths and this fine tea service is a superb example which illustrates his influence.  Varma was the first Indian artist to fuse contemporary European realism and techniques in his paintings of Indian subjects which he painted with a purely Indian sensibility. In 1894, he started a lithographic printing press to make his art available to the masses.  This enterprise was phenomenally successful: the oleographs produced by the press mainly depicted gods, goddesses, and scenes from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas.  They were very popular and continued to be printed in their thousands, for many years.  The prints, unlike his paintings, were affordable for almost everyone. In 1901, Varma sold his press to a printing technician from Germany who still continued to produce and distribute Varma’s prints for many years afterwards. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRaja Ravi Varma’s portfolio of work shaped Indian art profoundly, with his visions influencing Indian literature and the arts of the 20th century.  His influence is still very apparent in the visual arts today, with Bollywood film productions basing their portrayals of the Indian pantheon on his art as these images have now become so ingrained in the Indian psyche that they form the foundation for how the general public still envisages those deities, mythological creatures and ceremonial scenes.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eProvenance:-  \u003c\/em\u003eUK art market\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eDimensions:- \u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTeapot:-         Height 14 cms; Width 22.5 cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSugar Bowl:- Height 10cms; Width 17.5cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCream Jug:-   Height 10.5cms; Width 12.5cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eWeight:- \u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/em\u003eTotal weight - 1,090 grammes\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eReferences:-\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eVidya Dehejia, Delight in Design – Indian Silver for the Raj, Mapin Publishing, India 2008\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 2nd September 1889\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWynyard R T Wilkinson, Indian Silver 1858-1947, Decorative Silver from the Indian Subcontinent and Burma, Made by Local Craftsmen in Western Forms,  W Wilkinson \u0026amp; Indar Pashrical Fine Arts, London 1997 \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eU.S. Foreign Policy and the Other edited by Michael Patrick Cullinane, David Ryan, Berhahn Books, New York, USA\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e925-1000.com\u003c\/p\u003e","published_at":"2020-08-10T00:10:25+01:00","created_at":"2020-08-10T00:10:24+01:00","vendor":"Joseph Cohen Antiques","type":"Tea Service,","tags":["Madras Silver","Sold Archive"],"price":0,"price_min":0,"price_max":0,"available":false,"price_varies":false,"compare_at_price":null,"compare_at_price_min":0,"compare_at_price_max":0,"compare_at_price_varies":false,"variants":[{"id":35689650520214,"title":"Default Title","option1":"Default Title","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":false,"name":"Antique Indian Silver Tea Service, F P Bhumgara \u0026 Co, Madras, India, Late 19th Century","public_title":null,"options":["Default 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extremely fine antique Indian silver tea service was made in Madras in the late 19\u003csup\u003eth\u003c\/sup\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ecentury.  The set comprises three pieces, a teapot, cream jug and sugar bowl.  The vessels are of globular shape with each vessel supported by a plain silver stepped and coiled pedestal foot.  This design is echoed in the corresponding plain silver coiled edge to the rims of the openings above. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe finial of the tea pot takes the form of an elephant, representing the deity Ganesh. The pot has a spectacular coiled and arched serpent handle containing insulators, which serves as a rest and support for the hinged cover, ensuring that the hinge is not overstrained once the lid is opened. The handle to the cream jug and two handles to the sugar bowl are of similar style.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe vessels have been ornamented using repousse and chased techniques with well known scenes from the stories of the Hindu pantheon. There are two scenes on each piece which have been inspired by the paintings of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma, (please see below for further information) whose paintings and prints would have been widely admired and well known at the time this set was made.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOnly a master silversmith would have been capable of the standard of work required to accurately depict human figures, particularly to differentiate and create realistic faces with human expressions. Above each scene is a succession of architecturally inspired archways, alternating with a floral and foliate sprig. The scene to the tea pot which shows Shiva seated on his throne, with an umbrella above him, and surrounded by his devotees is an absolute masterpiece. With nine figures in total, all the figures are realistically posed, active and expressive with the details of the fabric of their robes, jewellery and the folds and drape of the cloth, finely rendered. The patterned fabric to Shiva’s umbrella is particularly noteworthy as is the finely detailed carving on his throne. The way in which the shape of the bolster supporting his back has distorted with the pressure is also very realistic. The serpent handle is just magnificent with every scale on the snake’s skin precisely rendered as are the striations and detailing of the under belly.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe background to all the scenes has been finely incised, with the natural elements such as mountains and trees portrayed in a very accomplished, if stylised, manner.  To the opposite side of the teapot, Shiva is shown riding a lion through the countryside, whilst holding Ganesh on his knee and bearing a lotus in his left hand. There is a mountainous backdrop in the distance, probably representing the Himalayas. A male figure follows Shiva and two female figures stand before him, one has her arms raised in welcome.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe cream jug depicts Shiva resting on Shisha, with a female crouching by his side and holding the lower part of his leg.  Once again, this scene is set against a mountainous backdrop.  To the opposite side, Shiva is depicted walking in the forest amongst the hills.  A female figure is offering him a drink of water from her waterpot.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe scenes on the sugar bowl are believed to illustrate Krishna with the Gopis, female cowherds, and their cows, with the second scene showing Lakshmi in the forest with two plaintiffs.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe tea pot has been inscribed to the underside of the base with ‘F.P.B. MADRAS’.  This is the mark of the Parsee merchant, Framgee Pestonjee Bhumgara, who traded from premises at 5 Mount Road, Madras as F.P. Bhumgara \u0026amp; Co. Framgee started his business in the Indian seaport of Surat in 1841, employing six workmen making sandalwood boxes and toys.  In 1865 he obtained premises in Bombay.  By the 1880s the firm had expanded, with other branches in Madras, Calcutta, Amritsar and Kashmir; then Bhumgara looked to expand internationally.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs reported by The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith on 2nd September 1889, ‘\u003cem\u003eSome time ago he (Framgee) visited England for the purpose of familiarising himself with the requirements of Western taste, and on that occasion he succeeded in obtaining an introduction to the Queen, who received him at Windsor, and expressed herself greatly pleased with the work, and appointed Mr. Framjee a jeweller to the court.\u003c\/em\u003e’With a royal appointment safely in his pocket, Bhumgara opened offices in London in the late l880’s, trading in Swami silverware, jewellery and other oriental wares.  He traded from premises at 135 London Wall, entering his silver mark with the London Assay Office on the 29th September 1891.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eF.P. Bhumgara \u0026amp; Co exhibited at the 1893 Chicago Exposition in the USA and opened their New York branch at 524 Broadway, the following year.  They also exhibited at The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, in 1904.  Bhumgara advertised a wide range of Eastern imports including various types of new and antique goods including furniture, textiles, metalwork, weapons and embroidered summer draperies.  They described themselves as ‘manufacturers and importers’. At this time, the novelty and exotic appeal of foreign goods in the market place was a source of great pleasure to the consumer who was often starved of any prospect of foreign travel or exploration of other cultures. Cullinane and Ryan explain that “foreignness itself was a large part of the appeal of imports”.  In this climate, traders like Bhumgara saw a great opportunity for profit.\u003cbr\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eMadras, now named Chennai, is one of India’s principal cities today.  It was founded in 1644 as a strategic trading post of the British East India Company.  As the city grew, it became a centre for silversmiths and other metalworkers. The arts and crafts of Madras were steeped in the Hindu tradition, influenced by the region’s rich legacy of temple architecture and Hindu bronze sculpture. During the nineteenth century, silver produced in Madras became known to the British as “Swami silver” because it depicted an abundance of decorative deities and scenes of religious festivals drawn from the iconography found in the surrounding temples.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFrom 1884 onwards, the work of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma (1848 – 1906) became the principal source of inspiration for the silversmiths and this fine tea service is a superb example which illustrates his influence.  Varma was the first Indian artist to fuse contemporary European realism and techniques in his paintings of Indian subjects which he painted with a purely Indian sensibility. In 1894, he started a lithographic printing press to make his art available to the masses.  This enterprise was phenomenally successful: the oleographs produced by the press mainly depicted gods, goddesses, and scenes from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas.  They were very popular and continued to be printed in their thousands, for many years.  The prints, unlike his paintings, were affordable for almost everyone. In 1901, Varma sold his press to a printing technician from Germany who still continued to produce and distribute Varma’s prints for many years afterwards. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eRaja Ravi Varma’s portfolio of work shaped Indian art profoundly, with his visions influencing Indian literature and the arts of the 20th century.  His influence is still very apparent in the visual arts today, with Bollywood film productions basing their portrayals of the Indian pantheon on his art as these images have now become so ingrained in the Indian psyche that they form the foundation for how the general public still envisages those deities, mythological creatures and ceremonial scenes.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eProvenance:-  \u003c\/em\u003eUK art market\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eDimensions:- \u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eTeapot:-         Height 14 cms; Width 22.5 cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSugar Bowl:- Height 10cms; Width 17.5cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eCream Jug:-   Height 10.5cms; Width 12.5cms\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eWeight:- \u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/em\u003eTotal weight - 1,090 grammes\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003eReferences:-\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eVidya Dehejia, Delight in Design – Indian Silver for the Raj, Mapin Publishing, India 2008\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 2nd September 1889\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWynyard R T Wilkinson, Indian Silver 1858-1947, Decorative Silver from the Indian Subcontinent and Burma, Made by Local Craftsmen in Western Forms,  W Wilkinson \u0026amp; Indar Pashrical Fine Arts, London 1997 \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eU.S. Foreign Policy and the Other edited by Michael Patrick Cullinane, David Ryan, Berhahn Books, New York, USA\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e925-1000.com\u003c\/p\u003e"}

Antique Indian Silver Tea Service, F P Bhumgara & Co, Madras, India, Late 19th Century

Product Description

This extremely fine antique Indian silver tea service was made in Madras in the late 19th century.  The set comprises three pieces, a teapot, cream jug and sugar bowl.  The vessels are of globular shape with each vessel supported by a plain silver stepped and coiled pedestal foot.  This design is echoed in the corresponding plain silver coiled edge to the rims of the openings above. 

The finial of the tea pot takes the form of an elephant, representing the deity Ganesh. The pot has a spectacular coiled and arched serpent handle containing insulators, which serves as a rest and support for the hinged cover, ensuring that the hinge is not overstrained once the lid is opened. The handle to the cream jug and two handles to the sugar bowl are of similar style.

The vessels have been ornamented using repousse and chased techniques with well known scenes from the stories of the Hindu pantheon. There are two scenes on each piece which have been inspired by the paintings of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma, (please see below for further information) whose paintings and prints would have been widely admired and well known at the time this set was made.

Only a master silversmith would have been capable of the standard of work required to accurately depict human figures, particularly to differentiate and create realistic faces with human expressions. Above each scene is a succession of architecturally inspired archways, alternating with a floral and foliate sprig. The scene to the tea pot which shows Shiva seated on his throne, with an umbrella above him, and surrounded by his devotees is an absolute masterpiece. With nine figures in total, all the figures are realistically posed, active and expressive with the details of the fabric of their robes, jewellery and the folds and drape of the cloth, finely rendered. The patterned fabric to Shiva’s umbrella is particularly noteworthy as is the finely detailed carving on his throne. The way in which the shape of the bolster supporting his back has distorted with the pressure is also very realistic. The serpent handle is just magnificent with every scale on the snake’s skin precisely rendered as are the striations and detailing of the under belly.

The background to all the scenes has been finely incised, with the natural elements such as mountains and trees portrayed in a very accomplished, if stylised, manner.  To the opposite side of the teapot, Shiva is shown riding a lion through the countryside, whilst holding Ganesh on his knee and bearing a lotus in his left hand. There is a mountainous backdrop in the distance, probably representing the Himalayas. A male figure follows Shiva and two female figures stand before him, one has her arms raised in welcome.

The cream jug depicts Shiva resting on Shisha, with a female crouching by his side and holding the lower part of his leg.  Once again, this scene is set against a mountainous backdrop.  To the opposite side, Shiva is depicted walking in the forest amongst the hills.  A female figure is offering him a drink of water from her waterpot.

The scenes on the sugar bowl are believed to illustrate Krishna with the Gopis, female cowherds, and their cows, with the second scene showing Lakshmi in the forest with two plaintiffs.

The tea pot has been inscribed to the underside of the base with ‘F.P.B. MADRAS’.  This is the mark of the Parsee merchant, Framgee Pestonjee Bhumgara, who traded from premises at 5 Mount Road, Madras as F.P. Bhumgara & Co. Framgee started his business in the Indian seaport of Surat in 1841, employing six workmen making sandalwood boxes and toys.  In 1865 he obtained premises in Bombay.  By the 1880s the firm had expanded, with other branches in Madras, Calcutta, Amritsar and Kashmir; then Bhumgara looked to expand internationally.

As reported by The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith on 2nd September 1889, ‘Some time ago he (Framgee) visited England for the purpose of familiarising himself with the requirements of Western taste, and on that occasion he succeeded in obtaining an introduction to the Queen, who received him at Windsor, and expressed herself greatly pleased with the work, and appointed Mr. Framjee a jeweller to the court.’With a royal appointment safely in his pocket, Bhumgara opened offices in London in the late l880’s, trading in Swami silverware, jewellery and other oriental wares.  He traded from premises at 135 London Wall, entering his silver mark with the London Assay Office on the 29th September 1891.

F.P. Bhumgara & Co exhibited at the 1893 Chicago Exposition in the USA and opened their New York branch at 524 Broadway, the following year.  They also exhibited at The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, in 1904.  Bhumgara advertised a wide range of Eastern imports including various types of new and antique goods including furniture, textiles, metalwork, weapons and embroidered summer draperies.  They described themselves as ‘manufacturers and importers’. At this time, the novelty and exotic appeal of foreign goods in the market place was a source of great pleasure to the consumer who was often starved of any prospect of foreign travel or exploration of other cultures. Cullinane and Ryan explain that “foreignness itself was a large part of the appeal of imports”.  In this climate, traders like Bhumgara saw a great opportunity for profit.

Madras, now named Chennai, is one of India’s principal cities today.  It was founded in 1644 as a strategic trading post of the British East India Company.  As the city grew, it became a centre for silversmiths and other metalworkers. The arts and crafts of Madras were steeped in the Hindu tradition, influenced by the region’s rich legacy of temple architecture and Hindu bronze sculpture. During the nineteenth century, silver produced in Madras became known to the British as “Swami silver” because it depicted an abundance of decorative deities and scenes of religious festivals drawn from the iconography found in the surrounding temples.

From 1884 onwards, the work of Indian artist, Raja Ravi Varma (1848 – 1906) became the principal source of inspiration for the silversmiths and this fine tea service is a superb example which illustrates his influence.  Varma was the first Indian artist to fuse contemporary European realism and techniques in his paintings of Indian subjects which he painted with a purely Indian sensibility. In 1894, he started a lithographic printing press to make his art available to the masses.  This enterprise was phenomenally successful: the oleographs produced by the press mainly depicted gods, goddesses, and scenes from the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas.  They were very popular and continued to be printed in their thousands, for many years.  The prints, unlike his paintings, were affordable for almost everyone. In 1901, Varma sold his press to a printing technician from Germany who still continued to produce and distribute Varma’s prints for many years afterwards. 

Raja Ravi Varma’s portfolio of work shaped Indian art profoundly, with his visions influencing Indian literature and the arts of the 20th century.  His influence is still very apparent in the visual arts today, with Bollywood film productions basing their portrayals of the Indian pantheon on his art as these images have now become so ingrained in the Indian psyche that they form the foundation for how the general public still envisages those deities, mythological creatures and ceremonial scenes.

Provenance:-  UK art market

Dimensions:- 

Teapot:-         Height 14 cms; Width 22.5 cms

Sugar Bowl:- Height 10cms; Width 17.5cms

Cream Jug:-   Height 10.5cms; Width 12.5cms

Weight:-  Total weight - 1,090 grammes

References:-

Vidya Dehejia, Delight in Design – Indian Silver for the Raj, Mapin Publishing, India 2008

The Watchmaker, Jeweller and Silversmith, 2nd September 1889

Wynyard R T Wilkinson, Indian Silver 1858-1947, Decorative Silver from the Indian Subcontinent and Burma, Made by Local Craftsmen in Western Forms,  W Wilkinson & Indar Pashrical Fine Arts, London 1997 

U.S. Foreign Policy and the Other edited by Michael Patrick Cullinane, David Ryan, Berhahn Books, New York, USA

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